TABLE 3.

Comparison of gene categories affected by rapamycin and nutrient deprivationa

CategoryNo. of genes regulatedEffect of:
Rapamycin treatmentGlutamine deprivationGlucose deprivation
Amino acid oxidation16↑↑↑↑↑
Fatty acid oxidation6↑↑↑↑↑↑
Fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis9↓↓↓↓↓↓↓
Nucleotide salvage pathway4↑↑↑↑↑↑
Nucleotide de novo synthesis14↓↓↓↓↓↓
Protein synthesis (initiation factors)16↓↓↓↓↓
Protein turnover (proteasome subunits)15↓↓↓↓↓
Protein folding (chaperones)21↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓
tRNA synthetases10↓↓↑↑↑↑↑↑
Amino acid synthesis3↓↓↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
Amino acid transporters5↓↓↓↑↑↑↑
Histones9↑↑↑↑↑↑
Immune modulators31↑↑↑↑↑↑
Cell cycle18↓↓↓↓↓↓
  • a ↑ means up-regulated and ↓ means down-regulated. The percentage of genes in each category affected by rapamycin treatment, glutamine or glucose deprivation is denoted in the following ways: ↑ or ↓, larger than 0 but smaller than or equal to 25%; ↑↑ or ↓↓, larger than 25% but smaller than or equal to 50%; ↑↑↑ or ↓↓↓, larger than 50% but smaller than or equal to 75%; ↑↑↑↑ or ↓↓↓↓, larger than 75% but smaller than or equal to 100%; —, there is no gene affected.