TABLE 1.

TGF-β and rapamycin cooperate to induce growth arrest of multiple nontransformed epithelial cell lines and human carcinoma cell linesa

Cell line (description)% control [3H]thymidine incorporationP
TRT + R
Mv1Lu (mink lung epithelial cells)20411<0.0001
HaCaT (human keratinocytes)5354190.03
BALB/MK (mouse keratinocytes)34281<0.0001
NMuMG (mouse mammary epithelial cells)547620<0.0001
MCF10A (human mammary epithelial cells)584911<0.0001
MDA-MB-231 (human mammary carcinoma cells)8658330.0016
DU145 (human prostatic carcinoma cells)904817<0.0001
A549 (human lung carcinoma cells)9657150.006
NIH OVCAR-3 (human ovarian carcinoma cells)435511<0.0001
NIH 3T3 (mouse fibroblasts)10658510.017
  • a The cell lines indicated were treated for 24 h with either 10 ng of TGF-β (T)/ml, 100 nM rapamycin (R), or 10 ng of TGF-β/ml plus 100 nM rapamycin (T + R). In each case, [3H]thymidine incorporation in normal growth medium was set at 100% (not shown) and the incorporation observed in the treated cells was presented as percentage of control [3H]thymidine incorporation. The results presented are the average of six replicate determinations. In all cases the differences between treatment with T + R and treatment with T or with R are statistically significant (P < 0.05) using Student's unpaired t test. The P values shown represent the difference between T + R treatment and the single-drug treatment (T or R) with the value closest to that of T + R treatment.